|13.9 Comparative clauses|
|13.9||The Spanish comparative|
|Ia||Equality = ... tan (tanto) + adjective (noun) + como ....|
|Ib||Superiority = ... más (más) + adjective (noun) + que ...|
|Ic||Subordination = ... menos (menos) + adjective (noun) + que ....|
|IIa||Relative superlative with superiority = ... el / la + más + adjective +de|
|IIb||Relative superlative with subordination = ... el / la + más + adjective +de|
|IIIa||Formation of the elative with an adverb (muy, sumamente etc.)|
|IIIb||Formation of the elative with ísimo|
|13.9 Comparative clauses - an introduction|
Comparative clauses are used to - how the name already says - compare things. They tell us how one thing is in quality or quantity related to another thing. They can be superior, they subordinated or equal. A comparison can be done with nouns, adjectives and adverbs.
|He has more
He has less money than you do.
He has as much money as you do.
|He is richer
than you are.
He is poorer than you are.
He is as rich as you are.
|He runs faster
than you do.
He runs more slowly than you do.
He runs as fast as you do.
The superlative goes one step further. It compares one fact not to only one other fact but to ALL other fact.
|He is the
richest man (of all men).
He is the richest of all.
He runs the fastest.
|I. The Spanish comparative|
|Ia Equality = ... tan (tanto) + adjective (+noun) / adverb + como ....|
es tan grande como ella. <=>He is as tall as she is.
|Ellos son tan ricos como Ustedes. <=>They are as rich as you are.|
|Vosotros sois tan testarudos como ellos. <=>You are as stubborn as they are.|
|Él es tan rico como ella. = He is as rich as she is.|
|Él corre tan rápido como ella. = He runs as fast as she does.
|Nosotros tenemos tanto dinero como vosotros. = We have as much money as you have.|
|En España hay tantos coches como en Inglaterra. = In Spain there are as many cars as in England.|
|Ib Superiority = ... más (más) + adjective (+noun) / adverb + que ....|
|Él es más grande que ella. <=> He is taller than she is.|
|Ellos son más ricos que Ustedes. <=> They are richer than you are.|
|Vosotros sois más testarudos que ellos. <=>You are more stubborn that they are.|
|Él es más rico que ella. = He is richer than she is.|
|Él corre más rápido que ella. = He runs faster than she does.
|Nosotros tenemos más dinero que Ustedes. = We have more money than you have.|
|En Alemania hay más coches que en Inglaterra. = In Spain there are more cars than in England.|
|Ic Subordination = ... menos (menos) + adjective (+noun) / adverb + que ....|
es menos grande que ella. <=>
He is less tall than she is (he is not as tall as she is, he is smaller than she)
son menos ricos que Ustedes. <=>
They are less rich than you (they are not as rich as you are, they are poorer than you are)
sois menos testarudos que ellos.<=>
You are less stubborn than they are
(you are not as stubborn as they are, you are more understanding than they are)
es menos rico que ella.
= He is less rich than she is (he is not as rich as she is, he is poorer than she is)
Él corre menos rápido que ella. = He runs less fast than she
|Nosotros tenemos menos dinero que Ustedes. = We have less money than you have.|
Alemania hay menos coches que en Inglaterra.
= In Deutschland are less cars than in England.
The superlative indicates the quantitative or qualitative superiority of one object in comparison to a reference group.
|The reference group is to be mentioned!|
|He is the
greatest (of all).
He runs the fastest among his group.
He is the richest man in town.
|IIa Relative superlative in superiority = ... el / la + más + adjective (+noun) / adverb +de|
el hombre más rico de todos. = He is the richest of all.
|Es el coche más rapido de la ciudad. = This is the fastest car in town.|
|Es la mujer más guapa que he visto jamás. = She is the most beautiful woman I have ever seen.|
|IIb Relative superlative with subordination = ... el / la + menos + adjective (+noun) / adverb +de|
todos estos chicos él es el menos arrogante.
= Of all the boys he is the least arrogant.
Is the superlative used without mentioning a reference group it is called elative. Just another name for something that looks quite the same. Point here is that it is used to emphasise something rather than compare.
is the coolest!
His brother is very cool.
Mom is the greatest!
Mom is really great.
In Spanish the superlative is only used to compare. Therefore the emphasis is put in other ways.
|IIIa Formation of the elative with an adverb (muy, sumamente etc.)|
es muy guapa. = She is very beautiful.
|Vosotros sois muy gordos.= You are very big|
|IIIb Formation of the elative with ísimo|
The elative can be formed with ísimo by taking the adjective ending -o/-a away and appending the ísimo. If the adjective ends on a consonant the ísimo is appended without changing the adjective. Again please remember that adjectives - no matter which ending - are changed according to the gender and number of the noun referred to. The ending puts an extra emphasis on the adjective - it can be translated with really very (or something similar).
|Este coche es carísimo. = This care is really very expensive.|
|Estos coches son carísimos.= These cars are really very expensive.|
|Esta casa es carísima. = This house is really expensive.|
|Estas casas son carísimas.= These houses are really expensive.|
|Este ejercicio es dificilísimo.= This exercise is really difficult.|
|Estos ejercicios son dificilísimos.= These exercises are really difficult.|
|rico = riquísimo =|
|largo = larguísimo = very long|
|feliz = felicísimo = very happy|
|fuerte= fortísimo = very strong|
|noble = nobilísimo = very honourable|
|amable = amabilísimo = very nice|
|fiel = fidelísimo = very faithful|
|antiguo = antiquísimo = very old|
|contact privacy statement imprint|