12.4. de
 I de means of and from and is used with some adverbs
 II de forms the genitive (= of)
 III de means from
 IV de in adverbial constructions
 V de and por

  12.4 de

  I. de means of and from and is used with some adverbs

¿De dónde vienes? = Where are you from?

Esta madera viene del Brasil. = This wood comes from Brazil.
  El perro de Baskerville. = The dog of Baskerville
Una olla sin tapa consume más del doble del calor que uno tapado.
= A pan without a cover consumes more than double (of) the heat than one covered.

  II. de forms the genitive

de forms the genitive (saying whose something is). It is translated directly as of.
In this case, the translation is not of, but a genitive.

El techo de la casa es verde. = The roof of the house is green.
Abrieron la puerta de mi casa por la fuerza. = They opened the door of my house by force.

  III. de when describing origin or material: of, from

Esta mesa es de madera. = This table is made of wood.
Estos coches vienen del Japón. = These cars come from Japan.

  IV. de in adverbial constructions

Some adverbial constructions are formed with de.

Lo aprende de memoria.
= She learns it by heart. (de memoria = by heart)
Comimos de prisa porque el tren iba a partir en cinco minutos.
= We ate in a hurry because the train was leaving in five minutes. (de prisa = in a hurry)
Me muero de risa.
= I laugh myself to death. (de risa = laughing)
Me muero de hambre.
= I starve to death.

  V. de vs. por

Sometimes the preposition de is used when giving a reason.

Gritaron de dolor. = They screamed with pain.
No pudimos dormir por el calor que hacía. = We could not sleep because of the heat.

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